Monday, January 20, 2020
Nature v. Nurture in Mark Twain's Pudd'nhead Wilson and Those Extraordinary Twins What makes a person who they are is a difficult dilemma. Mark Twain's novel, "Pudd'nhead Wilson and Those Extraordinary Twins" is a critical analysis of how nature and nurture can cultivate emotions and free will, which in turn affects the life of individuals. "Twain's faltering sense of direction began about slavery, moral decay, and deceptive realities (Kaplan 314). The debate of `nature versus nurture' has been one of the most intriguing scientific and cultural issues for most of the twentieth century, in determining the behavioral aspects of human beings. The changes in environment, society, education, political influences, family values and morals and other external influences, combined with physical genes determines how mankind will evolve into adulthood. Both nature and nurture, in combination with emotions and free will, control the behavior of human beings and determines who we are. Anthropologists, who study humans and their origins, generally accept that the human species can be categorized into races based on physical and genetic makeup. For example, many slaves had physical differences from their counterpart white race, such as dark skin and wiry hair. Throughout history, the study of Sociology has had a significant impacted the `nature versus nurture' debate. Social Darwinism based its theory on genetic determinism and natural selection, advocating a capitalist economy, promoting racism and the inherent inequality of such as society. Karl Marx, also an advocate for capitalism and slavery, applied the Marxist philosophy to the practice of science, emphasizing environmental influences determined behavior. Max Weber is known his ... ...lard Stern, Nahra, Nancy. American Lives. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1997 Sandler, Martin W., Rozwenc, Edwin C., Martin, Edward C. The People Make A Nation. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. 1975. Skinner, B.F. A Brief Survey of Operant Behavior. Cambridge, MA: B. F. Skinner Foundation. 1938 Skinner, Ellen A. Perceived Control, Motivation, & Coping. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 1995. Twain, Mark. Pudd'nhead Wilson and Those Extraordinary Twins. New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company, 2005. Wachs, Theodore D. The Nature of Nurture. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 1992. Wilson, Jim. Criminal Genes. Popular Science. Pars International Corp. New York, NY. November 12, 2002. http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/research/1282176.html
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The role of religion has changed over time in West Africa from the migration of Islam bringing its new faith, rituals, and establishment of a greater connection with the outside world through trade and cultural diffusion. However the unique African religion that existed beforehand was still retained; the African culture still believing in animism and polytheism even after the spread of Islam. From 1000-1500 CE the role of religion has seen changes and continuities influenced by the spread of foreign territories, economics, and political/social systems in West Africa. Religion in any time and has several profound influences on its society affecting the moral codes, gender relationships, and politics on that area. Previously, Africa although not fully isolated from the centers of other civilizations, remained secluded from communication with them, slowing the indigenous religions to be the main belief system. West AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s first major change begun around 1000 CE when followers of the prophet Muhammad came across Africa bringing its religion, Islam, and social changes. Due to its connection with the Islamic world Africa started to connect with other foreign territories through its new trading and long distance commerce system, exchanging new ideas and products. Furthermore, this new connection with the outside world brought occupants to the area, resulting in a population about 30 to 60 million by 1500 CE. These new economic effects deteriorated the nativeÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs role as the sole influence of its society, sharing that position with Islam. Also, the Islamic influence brought on by merchants and travelers spread the new faith across West Africa bringing mixed results from new converts and those who remained with the original religion. In the 12th century around the Sudanic states lived a very powerful ruler, called Sundiata, who though never forcing Islam on the citizens encouraged the spread of Islam, attracting many converts. Around the 13th century in the Kingdom of Mali became an example of Islamicized Sudanic Kingdoms from the building of mosques, attendance of Muslim prayers, and emphasized obedience to kings. In addition, ruling leaders often took Islamic titles enforcing their authority and displaying the cultural diffusion connected with Islam. Though the role of religion in West Africa has been altered due to the spread Islam many of its traditional ethic concepts have been retained and practiced. Despite the fact that Islam was introduced around 1000 CE, unlike in other countries, the new religion was not forced upon the people and some chose to convert, while others kept the traditional beliefs. One original concept of religion that has not changed in Africa is its monotheistic beliefs where there is one superior, all powerful deity who controls the course of the world and influences its population. Also, apart from the superior creator god there is animism, in which Africans recognize lesser deities often associated with natural forces, like water, wind, sun, etc, who are connected with the affairs of humans, good or bad. Many native rituals are focused on honoring these gods and other spirits for good fortune, including prayers, sacrifices, ceremonies marking important stages in life, like birth, marriage, and death. Furthermore, another religious practice that remained intact is the recognition of diviners, or individuals who were believed to be the bridge between mortality and the divine, who knew the causes of problems and their solutions spiritually. Also, though Islam was a major change brought on by 1000 CE, throughout 500 years it remained a steadfast religion, which had some beliefs similar to that of the traditional religion. In addition Islam did not change African gender systems and supplanted original religions, rather than replace them. Although many changes were incorporated into its spiritual life, religion still determined the ethical/moral code of the population determining the social and cultural manner of West Africa. The Islamization that took place within West Africa from 1000 to 1500 CE brought a variety of religious, political, and economic changes in its society, contrary to the diversity and individuality that remained. With the spread of Islam came a broader trading network which brought Africa new ways of communication with the outside world, bringing new ideas of faith and migrants to the area. Though the movement of new faiths traveled across the Sudanic states bringing new forms of worship, religion was still the main authority that determined the ethical/ social patterns of Africa. With this in mind much of African religion was retained, leading many people to live a life devoted to animism and several nature deities. Around the beginning of 1500 CE much of West Africa, especially Ghana, Mali, and the Sudanic kingdoms, became a fusion of African culture and Islamic influence, with greater connection to the outside world and Islam while great diversity remained.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Ibsen s play A Doll s House centers on a stereotypical and comfortable family in the nineteenth century which, outwardly, has the appearance of respectability to which any audience can relate. There are many indicators that reveal that this family upholds a false image, such as the symbolic title Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll s House. Nora is introduced as a little Spendthrift (p 6), which foreshadows future tension in her relationship. Torvald believes she is spending money frivolously, but she has actually secretly borrowed money to save his life, and is using the money he gives her to pay back her debt. Firstly, Nora and Torvald have different opinions regarding money: he upholds that borrowing is never an alternative to financial problems, but acknowledges that Nora does not follow this rule. Torvald believes she cannot help her tendency of over-spending, describing it as a hereditary condition: It is in the blood; for indeed it is true that you can inherit these things, Nora. (p 9). She has been content to maintain her secret of borrowing money from Krogstad without her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s consent. This allows her husband to think of her as a possession and an expense, as One would hardly believe how expensive such little persons are. (p 8). This becomes the main source from which the play s tension originates. This is essential, as NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s terror of Torvald uncovering this secret causes her to weave an increasingly unstable web of lies, which subsequently collapses around herShow MoreRelatedHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In the play, A Doll House by Henrik Ibsen, the title itself symbolizes the dependent and degraded role of the wife within traditional marriages. Ibsen portrayed the generous nature root into women by society, as well as the significant action of this nature, and lastly the need for them to find their own voice in a world ruled by men. Ibsen wrote this play in 1879, this is the era where women were obedient to men, tend the children until their husband came home, and stood by the Cult of DomesticityRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A Doll, a Partner, and a ChangeÃ¢â¬ Social movement of women liberation toward equal rights and independence has been a big subject in human history. It happens not only in Europe but also all over the world. Though making progress, this movement has been advancing slowly and encountered backslashes from time to time. Maybe there is something deeply hidden which the society has not figured out yet, even women themselves. What do women want, freedom or good life? Most of the time, they are notRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A Doll s House by Henrik Ibsen, is a play that has been written to withstand all time. In this play Ibsen highlights the importance of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. During the time period of the play these rights were neglected. Ibsen depicts the role of the woman was to stay at home, raise the children and attend to her husband during the 19th century. Nora is the woman in A Doll House who plays is portrayed as a victim. Michael Meyers said of Henrik Ibsen s plays: The common denominator in many of IbsenRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is based in the Victorian society of the 19th century. It assesses the many struggles and hardships that women faced because of marriage Ã¢â¬Å"lawsÃ¢â¬ that were crucial during that time period. The society was male- dominated with no equality. Nora is the protagonist in A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House and the wife of a man named Torvald. This play is about NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage to recognizing her self- determination and independence. She transforms from a traditional, reserved woman to a new, independentRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1298 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"There is beauty in truth, even if it s painful. Those who lie, twist life so that it looks tasty to the lazy, brilliant to the ignorant, and powerful to the weak. But lies only strengthen our defects. They don t teach anything, help anything, fix anything or cure anything. Nor do they develop one s character, one s mind, one s heart or one s soul.Ã¢â¬ (JosÃ © N. Harris). Nora HelmerÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to lie and deceive is inappropriate and wrong for women to do to her husband during this time period; itRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHenrik Ibsen s A Doll s House is a work of literature genius. This three-act play involves many literary technics that are undermined by the average reader such as the fact that the plot shows the main characters Torvald and his wife Nora live the perfect life. An ironic paradox based around the fact that Nora and TorvaldÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship is the complete opposite of perfect. Also, bringing upon a conflict as well, appearance versus reality. These little hidden meanings within stories are what areRead MoreHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House Essay1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHenrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll HouseÃ¢â¬ was set in the Victorian era, a time where women were highly respected. Women in this time period did not work, they had nannies to take care of their children and maids to take care of their homes. Many women had no real responsibilities, they spent their time having tea parties and socializing with their friends. Henrik Ibsen dared to show the realism of the Victorian era while everyone else would only focus on the romantic aspect. In the play, Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll HouseÃ¢â¬ Read MoreA Doll s House : Henrik Ibsen962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDrama Analysis A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House (Henrik Ibsen) And Trifles (Susan Glaspell) In comparing both dramas, the overwhelming aspect of convergence between both is the open discussion of gender identity. Both dramas make similar points about what it means to be a woman. Modern society in both dramas is constructed with men holding power over women. This is seen in Trifles in how men like George Henderson and Mr. Hale are myopic. The premise of the drama is how women worry over trifles, and the dismissiveRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, Henrik Ibsen examines conventional roles of men and women in the nineteenth century. In the play, Nora exemplifies the conventional feminine standard during that period. She seems to be powerless and confines herself through high standard expectations, demonstrating what the role of a women would be as a wife and mother. The protagonist of A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is a woman named Nora Helmer. Ibsen shows how NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s design of perfect life gradually transforms when her sec ret unravels. InRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen876 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House takes place in the home of Torvald and Nora Helmer. Through conversation with NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s good friend Kristine Linde it is revealed that Mr. Helmer was ill around the same time NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father died. Luckily NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father left her enough money that Torvald and Nora could go on a life saving trip to Italy. But the truth comes out when we find out NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father did not leave her a penny. We find out that Nora got a hold of the money through a loan but she signed
Friday, December 27, 2019
Loyola University New Orleans is a private Jesuit university with an acceptance rate of 94%. The 24-acre main campus is located in Uptown New Orleans about 20 minutes from the French Quarter. Loyola is made up of five colleges, and undergraduates can choose from 66 Bachelors degree programs. The university offers more than 130 student clubs, teams, and organizations. Loyola boasts of an 11-to-1Ã student / faculty ratio. On the athletic front, the Loyola Wolfpack competes in the NAIA Southern States Athletic Conference. Considering applying to Loyola University New Orleans? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Loyola University New Orleans had an acceptance rate of 94%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 94 students were admitted, making Loyolas admissions process less competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 4,514 Percent Admitted 94% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 19% SAT Scores and Requirements Loyola University New Orleans requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 42% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 550 640 Math 510 600 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of Loyolas admitted students fall within the top 35% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Loyola scored between 550 and 640, while 25% scored below 550 and 25% scored above 640. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 510 and 600, while 25% scored below 510 and 25% scored above 600. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1240 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at Loyola University New Orleans. Requirements Loyola does not require the SAT writing section or SAT Subject tests. Note that Loyola participates in the scorechoice program, which means that the admissions office will consider your highest score from each individual section across all SAT test dates. ACT Scores and Requirements Loyola University New Orleans requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 63% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 23 31 Math 20 26 Composite 22 28 This admissions data tells us that most of Loyola University New Orleans admitted students fall within the top 36% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Loyola received a composite ACT score between 22 and 28, while 25% scored above 28 and 25% scored below 22. Requirements Note that Loyola University New Orleans does not superscore ACT results; your highest composite ACT score will be considered. Loyola does not require the ACT writing section. GPA In 2018, the average high school GPA of Loyola University New Orleans incoming freshmen class was 3.51, and over 50% of incoming students had average GPAs of 3.5 and above. These results suggest that most successful applicants to Loyola have primarily high B grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph Loyola University New Orleans Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Loyola University New Orleans. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Loyola University New Orleans, which accepts over 90% of applicants, has a less competitive admissions process. If your SAT/ACT scores and GPA fall within the schools average ranges, you have a strong chance of being accepted. Keep in mind, however, that Loyola also hasÃ a holistic admissionsÃ process and admissions decisions are based on more than numbers. A strongÃ application essayÃ andÃ glowing letters of recommendationÃ can strengthen your application, as can participation in meaningfulÃ extracurricular activitiesÃ and aÃ rigorous course schedule. The college is looking for students who will contribute to the campus community in meaningful ways, not just students who show promise in the classroom. Students with particularly compelling stories or achievements can still receive serious consideration even if their grades and scores are outside of Loyola University New Orleans average range. Note that programs within the College of Music and Media have additional a pplication requirements including an audition, portfolio, and/or interview. In the graph above, the green and blue dots represent accepted students. You can see that most had SAT scores (ERWM) of 1000 or higher, ACT composite scores of 20 or higher, and a high school average of a B- or better. A significant number of applicants had high school GPAs in the A range. If You Like Loyola University New Orleans, You May Also Like These Schools Tulane UniversityUniversity of MiamiLoyola University ChicagoBaylor UniversityLoyola Marymount UniversityUniversity of Mississippi All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Loyola University New Orleans Undergraduate Admissions Office. Loyola University New Orleans Acceptance Rate, SAT/ACT Scores, GPA Loyola University New Orleans is a private Jesuit university with an acceptance rate of 94%. The 24-acre main campus is located in Uptown New Orleans about 20 minutes from the French Quarter. Loyola is made up of five colleges, and undergraduates can choose from 66 Bachelors degree programs. The university offers more than 130 student clubs, teams, and organizations. Loyola boasts of an 11-to-1Ã student / faculty ratio. On the athletic front, the Loyola Wolfpack competes in the NAIA Southern States Athletic Conference. Considering applying to Loyola University New Orleans? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Loyola University New Orleans had an acceptance rate of 94%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 94 students were admitted, making Loyolas admissions process less competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 4,514 Percent Admitted 94% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 19% SAT Scores and Requirements Loyola University New Orleans requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 42% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 550 640 Math 510 600 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of Loyolas admitted students fall within the top 35% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Loyola scored between 550 and 640, while 25% scored below 550 and 25% scored above 640. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 510 and 600, while 25% scored below 510 and 25% scored above 600. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1240 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at Loyola University New Orleans. Requirements Loyola does not require the SAT writing section or SAT Subject tests. Note that Loyola participates in the scorechoice program, which means that the admissions office will consider your highest score from each individual section across all SAT test dates. ACT Scores and Requirements Loyola University New Orleans requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 63% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 23 31 Math 20 26 Composite 22 28 This admissions data tells us that most of Loyola University New Orleans admitted students fall within the top 36% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Loyola received a composite ACT score between 22 and 28, while 25% scored above 28 and 25% scored below 22. Requirements Note that Loyola University New Orleans does not superscore ACT results; your highest composite ACT score will be considered. Loyola does not require the ACT writing section. GPA In 2018, the average high school GPA of Loyola University New Orleans incoming freshmen class was 3.51, and over 50% of incoming students had average GPAs of 3.5 and above. These results suggest that most successful applicants to Loyola have primarily high B grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph Loyola University New Orleans Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Loyola University New Orleans. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Loyola University New Orleans, which accepts over 90% of applicants, has a less competitive admissions process. If your SAT/ACT scores and GPA fall within the schools average ranges, you have a strong chance of being accepted. Keep in mind, however, that Loyola also hasÃ a holistic admissionsÃ process and admissions decisions are based on more than numbers. A strongÃ application essayÃ andÃ glowing letters of recommendationÃ can strengthen your application, as can participation in meaningfulÃ extracurricular activitiesÃ and aÃ rigorous course schedule. The college is looking for students who will contribute to the campus community in meaningful ways, not just students who show promise in the classroom. Students with particularly compelling stories or achievements can still receive serious consideration even if their grades and scores are outside of Loyola University New Orleans average range. Note that programs within the College of Music and Media have additional a pplication requirements including an audition, portfolio, and/or interview. In the graph above, the green and blue dots represent accepted students. You can see that most had SAT scores (ERWM) of 1000 or higher, ACT composite scores of 20 or higher, and a high school average of a B- or better. A significant number of applicants had high school GPAs in the A range. If You Like Loyola University New Orleans, You May Also Like These Schools Tulane UniversityUniversity of MiamiLoyola University ChicagoBaylor UniversityLoyola Marymount UniversityUniversity of Mississippi All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Loyola University New Orleans Undergraduate Admissions Office.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
After reading the article by Rind, Tromovich, and Baserman, and the other associated commentaries I have drawn a few conclusions. First I do not believe in the Rind et al. s final theory that child sexual abuse does not cause intense and extensive harm in the long term. However, I do not fully renounce all of his theories. I have concluded that their final theory needed more precise research and there were holes in their research and theory. I also believe that they did not consider the impact that their article would have on the psychological community, politics, and personal emotional impact. After I read the first article from Rind et al s, I felt shock and anger from the content. I understood that what they wanted to answer a few key questions such as, does child sexual assault (CSA) cause harm, will the harm be intense, and is the experience similar for both boys and girls in terms of the negative effects. I felt that the article minimized CSA and the effects it has on the victi ms. On page 26 in the left-hand column, Rind states that, Ã¢â¬Å"CSA does not typically have intensely negative psychological effects. Almost the exact same sentence was repeated on page 46 in the right-hand column. On that same page, it inferred that adult-child sex and adult-adolescent sex was considered normal in some populations. That may be true, but children and adolescents should not be exposed to that at such a young age where they are not fully developed. In the rebuttal article byShow MoreRelatedChild Abuse Is A Serious Concern Of Society1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Child abuse is a serious concern of society because of the negative effects on later social and psychological functioning. Particularly, the concern of Ã¢â¬Ëthe cycle of violence hypothesisÃ¢â¬â¢ which is one of the most influential conceptual models for antisocial behaviour in the social and behavioural science (DeLisi, Kosloski, Vaughn, Caudill, Trulson, 2014; Lansford, Miller-Johnson, Berlin, Dodge, Bates, Pettit, 2007). Numerous studies have documented the association between childhoodRead MorePedophilia and Deviant Behavior1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdisorder characterized by the urge to have sexual relations with those of a non-consenting age. Initially this paper will examine why exactly this is a deviant behavior. We will then go on to analyze their structural organization. Why people would want membership in such a group will then be scrutinized. An in-depth examination of what causative factors exist that contribute to this form of deviance will then ensue. We will con clude with the various theories of deviance that could further explain theRead MorePsychological Factors That Cause Offending Behavior803 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSince the emergence of methods, theories and practice in the late nineteen century in the laboratory of William Wundt in Germany, Psychology as a science has evolved to apply its principles in areas such as education, arts and law, but not limited to. Therefore, in time, psychological theories and practices have emerged in an attempt to aid the legal process and explain those psychological factors that cause offending behaviour. Forensic psychology applies theories and findings from different areasRead MoreChild Abuse And Its Effects On Children1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChild abuse has long been an ongoing social problem; this abuse has been one of the repeatedly difficult accusations to prove in our criminal justice system. Child abuse causes many years of suffering for victims. Children abused suffer from chemical imbalanc es, behavioral issues and are at high risk for becoming abusers or being abused in adult relationships. This cycle of learned behavior and suffering will be a hopeless reoccurring problem unless the criminal justice system and protocols for abusersRead MoreEffects Of Child Sexual Abuse On Marriage Essay1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEffects of Child Sexual Abuse on Marriage There are many types of abuse: physical, mental, emotional, and sexual. Each has different outcomes for the victim and long term effects. Abuse can play a huge role into how victimÃ¢â¬â¢s romantic relationships play out. There are even more negative effects when the abuse happens as a child verse an adult. There has been research done over the years for each type of abuse and at different ages, but the focus here is on sexual abuse in children, and how it affectsRead MoreFrom the beginning of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life, he/she holds the key to their own destiny. However, this is1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe beginning of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life, he/she holds the key to their own destiny. However, this is no longer the case when child sexual abuse is brought in as a factor. In surveys conducted, it was indicated that six percent to sixty-two percent of women and two percent to fifteen percent of men have been victims of sexual abuse as a child (Finkelhor 79). That was not their choice. Abuse is the result of force - not from a personÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to fulfill an act. Victims also have to cope with the aftereffectsRead MoreModels of Abuse1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesModels of Abuse This essay will describe the models of abuse and compare them; there has been some controversy over these and this will be lightly discussed. Psychological Model of Abuse - Also known as emotional or mental abuse Emotional abuse can be described as constantly mistreating a child and therefore affecting their emotional state and development. Emotional abuse can be inflicted upon a child in many different ways; these can include telling a child that they are Ã¢â¬Å"worthlessRead MoreCrimes Against Children1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTechniques for Successful Outcomes ABSTRACT Child abuse clearly has a negative impact on children and can result in behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and developmental difficulties. This may lead to greater difficulties later in life that will extend into adulthood. The use of proper investigation techniques and appropriate handling of cases, however, can result in less traumatization for child abuse victims. I. Introduction AccordingRead MorePsychological Dispositions: Pedophilia and Paraphilia Essay1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesParaphilia is a condition where sexual arousal is dependent on fantasizing about engaging in sexual behavior considered atypical or extreme (Psychology Today, 2014). Pedophilia and other paraphilia are viewed as mental illness that is abnormal, distasteful, weird, kinky and totally unacceptable by most people (Psychology Today, 2014). One of the most hated, reviled, and public enraging individuals in society is a pedophile. Most equate pedophilia with a sexual molester of children or some sortRead MoreThe, Better Know By Her Pen Name Sapphire1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaccurate stories of childhood sexual abuse and trauma. Her 1996 novel PushÃ tells the story of Claireece Ã¢â¬Å"PreciousÃ¢â¬ Jones, an illiterate black street girl, sixteen years old and pregnant with her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s second child. Lofton was the victim of childhood sexual assault. In 2010 she told the London Evening Standard that her father had molested her at age 8. Her mother abandoned their family five years later. Lofton experienced first hand what the consequences of child abuse caused to her family. The result
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about theChild Development for Social and Developmental. Answer: Child development is a process that entails psychological, emotional and social changes. These changes happen right from the birth through adolescence. Essentially, the changes are fundamental as one transit from dependency stage to autonomy stage (Zarra?Nezhad et al. 2014). Moreover, the changes may be influenced by past events as well as the genetics determination. Child development is unique for every child although the sequence is highly predictable. In other words, child development takes place at different rates in different children. Every stage is influenced by the previous developmental experiences. Child development occurs in stages. While all stages of child development are critical, early childhood is a more crucial development stage. Chiefly, the experiences of early childhood influence the child's outcomes in the rest of their lives and also determine who the child becomes (Gentzler, Ramsey Black, 2015). While focusing on the theory of child development and that of int elligence, this paper seeks to reflect on how the two have been applicable in my personal life. Parenting style and attachment between a child and a caregiver are important and influence the development of a child (Jones, Cassidy Shaver, 2015). My childhood is one that had several twists. I am a victim of separated parents whereby my parents separated when I was only thirteen years. I was left under the custody of my mother. After separation, it was evident that mother was going to be the sole provider of the family. For this reason, my mother who is a security guard works for longer hours probably due to the nature of work and the burden of proving for the family. Consequently, although I am emotionally attached to my mother, the distance, longer hours of work, and minimal family time is a stabling block to physical attachment. However, these factors do not affect our relationship whatsoever. Additionally, the role of mother as my caregiver grows exponentially to meet my needs. She has consistently expressed immense support and psychological attachment towards me. The kind of attachment I have with my mother has led to positive consequences on my development especially in improving intelligence. Additionally, I have been able to avoid aggression, delinquency, and depression. Conversely, both attachment and parenting style have adversely affected my present relationships. It is evident that the effects of spouses divorce or separation have adverse effects on the development of children and may affect them through their entire lives (Jones et al. 2014). Although my parents separated when I was thirteen years old, my father has not been so concerned about me even before the separation. Therefore, I have known mother as the only caretaker of the family. Being brought up by a single mother and who spends a lot of time working has had detrimental effects on my relationships. The absence of one parent and the assumption of all roles by mother rendered her so controlling. It is the outcome of what is stressed by Uji and the colleagues (2013). Although she is nurturing and supportive, she makes the major decision at home. Consequently, it affects my relationship with others in that I do not want instances where I feel controlled. I disconnect from friends and pee rs who are controlling and who are always up to seek attention. John Bowlby's attachment theory and the later advancement by Mary Ainsworth contend that emotionally and psychologically attached children tend to have trust, feel secure and loved (Bowlby Ainsworth, 2013). I live a lonely life when I am away from school and when my mother goes for job and this has affected my relationships in that I cannot establish trust with friends or people close to me. Additionally, as earlier mentioned, my mother works for long hours, so we have limited time together. Thus, it is replicated in the relationships I form such that I do not have lasting ties with those that I relate with. The consequence is that I become socially withdrawn and pursue personal things on my own. I am not also talkative and avoid trouble at all the times. Although I have a challenge in maintaining a large number of relationships, I do not express negativity towards others. I listen carefully to others and respond positively if need be, and I am also happy while sharing with others. I also express enthusiasm, but I act like myself and never allowing negative influence from others. However, the major problem is building trust with the majority of peers. My mother has been my life-long primary teacher. Other than providing material necessities, she also ensures that there is an environment where I can learn skills necessary for social participation. She also compels me to embrace personal responsibility in whatever thing I engage in. another form of parenting style she expresses is the creative use of techniques, knowledge and experience. In this case, therefore, she guides me on what is wrong or right and leaves me to act responsibly. Howard Gardner discredits the determination of intelligence by evaluation of a person's IQ. He maintains that knowledge is a totality of a person's talents and skills (Gardner,1987). He also contends that people possess different talents and skills hence have varying levels of intelligence. He, therefore, proposed a multiple intelligences theory and listed eight types of intelligences (Gardner, 1987). This section of the paper explains the benefits of the theory of multiple intelligences in a school setting. Gardner (2004) contends that the theory of multiple intelligences is critical to both learners and teachers at all levels. However, in the recent decades, schools have had their main attention on only logical-mathematical and linguistic intelligence. Consequently, Nadi, Maktabi, and Hashemi (2014) compel both teachers and learners to adopt the philosophy of the multiple intelligences. Nadi, Maktabi, and Hashemi (2014) also maintain that there lie various skills and talents in designers, entrepreneurs, musicians, dancers, artists, therapists, naturalists, and architects. Noddings (2015) thus emphasize that teachers and learners should be trained on how to employ art activities, music, inner reflection, multimedia, cooperative learning, role play, and field strips in learning or teaching. Multiple intelligences are important in supporting learners both academically and behaviorally (Morgan, 2014). The centrality of the teaching philosophy is to meet all the student's academic needs. However, these needs may not be adequately satisfied when a teacher employs a single teaching strategy say like the logical-mathematical intelligence. Students' needs vary considerably since they do not possess similar or equal abilities. Therefore, Sternberg (2015) asserts that the adoption of one form of intelligence may not be beneficial to all the students hence the need to involve a broad range of intelligences in the teaching-learning milieu. Although a teacher cannot prepare a lesson for every student, Linsley, Digan, and Nugent (2016) argue that the multiple intelligences operate when a teacher allows students to work cooperatively. Such an approach gives students an opportunity to express their intelligences. Teachers also design lessons that integrate different strategies that allow all the students to participate fully in class activities. In other words, Linsey, Digan, and Nugent (2016) stress that students are gifted differently. While one form of intelligence can work effectively to one student, another may not. Thus, teachers ought to encourage students to work cooperatively and interdependently for better results. That way, every student will feel involved and have the feeling that their needs have been met. One of the intelligences that I possess is intrapersonal intelligence. Intrapersonal intelligence provides me with self-reflection opportunities. It is thus easier for me to adjust my tasks as well as select the most effective studying conditions. It is this kind of intelligence that enables me to read widely and think critically when it comes to problems solving. Besides, intrapersonal intelligence has helped me a great deal in discovering that which works for my success. Through the intelligence, I have discovered the many solutions that I can employ to improve my academic performance. For example, since I do not find it comfortable and effective to discuss a lot of things with my fellow students, I result to reading and researching widely. Similarly, I do not pay attention to what works for others since it may not work for me. I pay attention to the effective study materials since it easier for to gather information, understand it, internalize it and also apply the same. Consequen tly, I retain knowledge and perform excellently in academics. The approach has also enriched the manner in which I process information as well as how I process knowledge. Principally, gaining awareness about myself is important in that I allow more time for concentration and development better moods. In conclusion, schools focus on promoting students' self-confidence as well as helping them accomplish their dreams. Garden's multiple intelligences theory is such a framework that provides different talents and abilities for students. The theory recognizes that all the students may not possess linguistically or mathematical abilities hence may be gifted in different areas including spatial relations, interpersonal knowledge, music, and many others. The theory is an effective tool that allows a wide range of students to participate in classroom learning. The theory is beneficial to both teachers and students. Again, intrapersonal intelligence is critical in learning, information processing, and in the retention of knowledge. It involves discovering about the self. It allows individuals discover what works best for them. Essentially, intrapersonal intelligence does not only improves a person's moods but also provides them boost their concentration. References Bowlby, J., Ainsworth, M. (2013). The origins of attachment theory. Attachment Theory: Social, Developmental, and Clinical Perspectives, 45. Gardner, H. (1987). The theory of multiple intelligences. Annals of Dyslexia, 37(1), 19-35. Gardner, H. (2004). Audiences for the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Teachers College Record, 106(1), 212-220. Gentzler, A. L., Ramsey, M. A., Black, K. R. (2015). Mothers attachment styles and their childrens self-reported security, as related to maternal socialization of childrens positive affect regulation. Attachment human development, 17(4), 376-398. Jones, J. D., Brett, B. E., Ehrlich, K. B., Lejuez, C. W., Cassidy, J. (2014). Maternalattachment style and responses to adolescents negative emotions: The mediating role of maternal emotion regulation. Parenting, 14(3-4), 235-257. Jones, J. D., Cassidy, J., Shaver, P. R. (2015). Parents self-reported attachment styles: A review of links with parenting behaviors, emotions, and cognitions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19(1), 44-76. Larzelere, R. E., Morris, A. S. E., Harrist, A. W. (2013). Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development. American Psychological Association. Linsley, P., Digan, J., Nugent, S. (2016). Emotional intelligence as part of clinical engagement. British Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 5(1), 32-37. Morgan, H. (2014). Maximizing student success with differentiated learning. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 87(1), 34-38. Nadi, N. F., Maktabi, G. H., Hashemi, S. S. S. (2014). Exploring The Relationship Among The Multiple Intelligences And Emotional Intelligence In High School Students. Noddings, N. (2015). The Challenge to Care in Schools, 2nd Editon. Teachers College Press. Pinquart, M. (2016). Associations of parenting styles and dimensions with academic achievement in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 28(3), 475-493. Sternberg, R. J. (2015). Teaching for creativity: The sounds of silence. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(2), 115. Uji, M., Sakamoto, A., Adachi, K., Kitamura, T. (2014). The impact of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles on childrens later mental health in Japan: Focusing on parent and child gender. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(2), 293-302. Zarra?Nezhad, M., Kiuru, N., Aunola, K., Zarra?Nezhad, M., Ahonen, T., Poikkeus, A. M., ... Nurmi, J. E. (2014). Social withdrawal in children moderates the association between parenting styles and the children's own socioemotional development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(11), 1260-1269. Zhao, W., Young, R. E., Breslow, L., Michel, N. M., Flett, G. L., Goldberg, J. O. (2015). Attachment style, relationship factors, and mental health stigma among adolescents. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 47(4), 263.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Preventing Aboriginal Suicide PREVENTING ABORIGINAL SUICIDE: DOES A SHIFT IN THE DOMINANT SCHOOLING PARADIGM HOLD SOME PROMISE? by R. Lloyd Ryan, PhD R. Lloyd Ryan, Ph.D. P. O. Box 1072 Lewisporte, NF Phone: 709 535 8464 email: [emailprotected] It is with growing alarm, concern and compassion that we witness the continuing (and growing?) high rate of suicide in Canada's Aboriginal community. This phenomenon has numerous far-reaching and negative implications and, up to the present, few satisfactory explanations and fewer proposed solutions. It is, thus, imperative that aspects of contemporary Aboriginal personal and community living that have not yet come under sufficient scrutiny be examined and analyzed, not for anthropological or abstract sociological purposes, but for intensely personal and life purposes. It must be realized that, sometimes, it is that which is most ubiquitous and familiar which may be most ignored, the assumption being that what is common is not significant. An example is parasites borne by the river that has fed us for generations, or heavy metals in our staple food, both contributing to chronic health problems, and both ignored because we expect severe dysfunction to have exotic and unfamiliar dress. It is, thus, proposed that the existing predominant model of schooling, in this case schooling of Aboriginal children, come under careful scrutiny. Aboriginals, like most other Canadians, have accepted, now almost without question, the principle that education is the key to a secure and happy future. This principle may be as fraught with problems as the one-time equally-accepted principle that the earth was the centre of the universe and that the sun was just one of earth's satellites. Just as it was heresy to question the geo-centric universe, it is now similar heresy to question the principle, the dogma, of the value of education. It is now being questioned! This may not be merely a questioning of the value of education (whatever it is we mean by that). Indeed, Aboriginal communities have recognized that some elements of the schooling system have potential for negative impact on life and living. Now, having taken over some control of their educational systems, they have made some significant curricular changes ... and, that is good - as far as it goes. The major aspect of the problem, however, does not necessarily rest simply with the content of the curriculum, although that is undoubtedly important, so much as with the very concept of schooling, and the concomitant and consistent concepts of the nature of learning and of the child as learner. It may be the fact that the product of the educational system may not be the expected and hoped for education. In fact, that which is actually delivered and received may be antithetical to that which is anticipated and hoped for. Rather than the schooling experience providing the hoped for emancipation, it may be providing an insidious enslavement and addiction to dysfunctional concepts of what constitutes learning, and dysfunctional perceptions of personal response to that learning. In other words, the hoped for education may not be that which is supportive of Aboriginal communities or of individual Aboriginal youth or adults. There is no doubt that one could engage in a rather extensive (and possibly stimulating) philosophical discourse about what constitutes education, without arriving at an answer that would be satisfactory, either generally, or particularly to the Aboriginal community. There is, no doubt, a great need to have that debate in the general population, as well as in the Aboriginal community. To some extent, that debate, however one-sided and unfinished, has been on-going, giving rise to a number of royal commission reports and to the growth of a whole new testing industry in Canada, for example. The solution for Aboriginal communities, and indeed for the general community, does not lie in that direction, primarily because the crucial questions have been neither asked nor answered. The major question has to be How do children learn, naturally? That is, how does a child's brain learn? How do children learn? What are the implications for schooling? What are the implications for children's developing self-concept and personal confidence and conceptualization of personal value and self-worth? Is the very model of contemporary schooling so out-of-step with natural brain functioning that it precipitates the destruction of children's self-esteem, so much so that their personal and social deterioration -